Surgery for the treatment of early-stage glottic carcinoma still remains a valid option. In most patients, newly formed neocord tissue preserves glottic functions, but in some patients an important glottic gap leading to glottic insufficiency may occur. In our study, 11 patients who had serious glottic insufficiency after endoscopic laser and laryngofissure cordectomy were treated with autologous fat injection (AFI) into the neocord tissue for voice and swallowing rehabilitation. One patient did not attend the first control visit and was excluded from the study. The remaining 10 patients were evaluated in the preoperative and postoperative periods for phonatory functions and efficacy of AFI by videolaryngostroboscopy and computerized acoustic analysis. Phonatory functions showed statistically significant improvement in the shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, maximum phonation time and fundamental frequency. Perceptual ratings (GRBAS scale) also showed statistically significant improvement in all 5 parameters. Despite improvement in glottic closure, the mucosal wave deteriorated. Due to recurrence of symptoms of glottic insufficiency, AFI was repeated in 2 patients at the third and fifth months, respectively. One year later, the AFI resulted in successful rehabilitation of swallowing in all patients. The probability of resorption of autologous fat and the deterioration of the mucosal wave after AFI remain a problem, but re-injection can be done easily. As AFI is an easy, safe and cheap method, we concluded that it is a promising alternative procedure for managing voice problems after laser or laryngofissure cordectomy defects. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.