Introduction: Masitinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the c-KIT receptor, is used for the treatment of mast cell tumours in dogs. Masitinib has previously been investigated in various cancers; however, its potential anticancer effect in canine mammary tumours (CMTs) is unknown. In the present paper, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of masitinib in CMT cells and its possible mechanisms of action. Material and Methods: The effect of masitinib on the proliferation of CMT-U27 and CMT-U309 cells was assessed by MTT assay and DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the effect of masitinib on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Additionally, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF) were measured, and the proliferation marker Ki-67 was visualised in immunocytochemical stainings in CMT cells. Results: Treatment with masitinib inhibited the proliferation of CMT cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal apoptotic activity and DNA fragmentation were observed at approximately IC50 of masitinib in both cell lines. In addition, cell cycle distribution was altered and VEGF levels and Ki-67 proliferation indices were decreased in masitinib-treated cells in comparison with control cells. Conclusion: In this study, masitinib suppressed cell proliferation concomitantly via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by decreasing VEGF levels and the Ki-67 proliferation index in CMT-U27 and CMT-U309 cells in vitro, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic tool in the clinical setting of mammary cancer treatment in dogs.