High levels of fructose in the diet results in metabolic abnormalities and vascular disorders. In this study, the effect of resveratrol (RES) on vascular relaxation and contraction responses was examined in the aorta of high-fructose (HFr)-fed rats. mRNA expressions of aortic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), GLUT5, and aldolase B were also investigated. Rats were given fructose (30%) and (or) RES (50 mg.L-1) in their drinking water for 8 weeks. In the HFr-fed rats, plasma levels of arginine and the ratio of arginine: asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) decreased, whereas leptin levels increased. Decreased relaxation and increased contractile responses were detected in aortic rings. However, the aortic expressions of SIRT1, GLUT5, and aldolase B remained unchanged. RES treatment restored HFr-induced vascular dysfunction without improvements in insulin resistance. Treatment of HFr-fed rats with RES increased plasma levels of arginine and the L-arginine: ADMA ratio, and decreased plasma levels of leptin. RES increased SIRT1 expression, but decreased the expression of GLUT5 and aldolase B in aortas from HFr-fed rats. These results suggest that RES contributes to the restoration of HFr-induced vascular dysfunction in rats, at least in part, by up-regulation of SIRT 1 and down-regulation of GLUT5 and aldolase B in the aorta. Moreover, RES may have a positive influence on vasculature by partly restoring the plasma arginine: ADMA ratio and leptin levels.