Elevated levels of homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. The C677T transition in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with increased homocysteine levels in the general population. We analysed the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and serum homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Allele frequencies for the 'C' (wild-type) and 'T' alleles were 0.71 and 0.29 in CAD patients and 0.70 and 0.30 in controls, respectively. There was no difference in the distribution of MTHFR genotypes between patients with CAD and control subjects (p > 0.05). In the patient group, homocysteine levels were higher than controls but not significantly (13.99 +/- 7.44 vs. 11.77 +/- 5.18 mu mol l(-1); p > 0.05). Serum homocysteine concentration was significantly higher in the TT genotype with respect to CC and CT genotypes in both the control group (p < 0.01) and patient group (p < 0.01). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with different MTHFR genotypes did not differ significantly. In conclusion, MTHFR C677T mutation was significantly related to hyperhomocysteinemia. In spite of the clear effect of the MTHFR polymorphism on elevated homocysteine levels, we did not observe any associations among the MTHFR genotypes with a the risk of CAD in the Turkish population. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.