Cardiovascular conditions are significant causes of mortality and morbidity leading to substantial disability. The aim of the paper is to improve Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) physicians' professional practice for people with cardiovascular conditions in order to promote their functioning and to reduce activity limitations and/or participation restrictions. A systematic review of the literature and a Consensus procedure by means of a Delphi process have been performed involving the delegates of all European countries represented in the UEMS PRM Section. The systematic literature review is reported together with thirty recommendations resulting from the Delphi procedure. The professional role of PRM physicians having expertise in the rehabilitation of cardiovascular conditions is to lead cardiac rehabilitation programs in multi-professional teams, working in collaboration with other disciplines in a variety of settings to improve functioning of people with cardiovascular conditions. This evidence-based position paper represents the official position of the European Union through the UEMS PRM Section and designates the professional role of PRM physicians in persons with cardiovascular conditions.