Detecting COVID-19 in computed tomography (CT) or radiography images has been proposed as a supplement to the RT-PCR test. We compare slice-based (2D) and volume-based (3D) approaches to this problem and propose a deep learning ensemble, called IST-CovNet, combining the best 2D and 3D systems with novel preprocessing and attention modules and the use of a bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory model for combining slice-level decisions. The proposed ensemble obtains 90.80% accuracy and 0.95 AUC score overall on the newly collected IST-C dataset in detecting COVID-19 among normal controls and other types of lung pathologies; and 93.69% accuracy and 0.99 AUC score on the publicly available MosMedData dataset that consists of COVID-19 scans and normal controls only. The system also obtains state-of-art results (90.16% accuracy and 0.94 AUC) on the COVID-CT-MD dataset which is only used for testing. The system is deployed at Istanbul University Cerrahpas & DBLBOND;a School of Medicine where it is used to automatically screen CT scans of patients, while waiting for RT-PCR tests or radiologist evaluation.(C) 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.