Acute inflammatory processes of the brain tissue and meninges caused by viruses are relatively common and may be caused by a number of different viral agents. The specific etiological agent is not identified in many instances. Most cases completely recover. The prognosis depends upon the severity of the clinical illness, the specific etiology, and the age of the child. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is an important clinical type of encephalitis. In recent years, many cases of ANE caused by influenza A virus infection have been reported from different Eastern and European countries. In this paper we describe a young child with influenza A-associated ANE.