Galectin-1 is an important mediator that regulates the T-cell-mediated immune response. It has many other biological functions such as cell growth, immunomodulation, and wound healing. The aim of this study was to reveal the role of galectin-1 on liver morphology, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, and antioxidant system in colitis-mediated hepatotoxicity induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In the present study, adult mice were divided into four groups: The control group intraperitoneally injected with phosphate buffer saline (I), the group which was orally administered with DSS (II), the control group which was injected with galectin-1 (III), and the group which was given DSS and galectin-1 (IV). DSS administration caused degenerative changes and diffuse necrotic damage, an increase in caspase-3 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the levels of lipid peroxidation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lactate dehydrogenase, and myeloperoxidase activities, and a decrease in cell proliferation, interleukin-10 levels, and antioxidant system parameters in liver tissues. Treatment of DSS group with galectin-1 reversed these effects and prevented liver damage. This study showed that galectin-1 has proliferative, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects against DSS-induced liver injury in mice. It is expected considering all results of this study that galectin-1 may be useful as a protective agent against liver toxicity.