In this study, induction of regenerable callus from mature embryos in eight Turkish barley varieties was analysed by using different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Varying concentrations (0.5-4 mg l(-1)) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) were tested for callus induction from mature embryos. Highest percent of callus induction was observed in Bornova 92 variety (98.3%) on MS medium supplemented with 4 mg l(-1) dicamba. Calli were transferred to regeneration media with 0.5 mg l(-1) dicamba, 0.5 mg l(-1) zeatin riboside (ZR) and 2 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ). Low concentrations of dicamba induced multiple shoots during callus regeneration. When the effect of precultivation with 2,4-D or dicamba on the shoot induction were evaluated, lower concentrations (< 4 mg l(-1)) of auxins have been found optimal. On the regeneration medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) dicamba, shoots were able to elongate up to 20 cm and shoot numbers were between 1-23 per callus. The use of ZR led to formation of short shoot buds and somatic embryos in 2 weeks period. The effect of TDZ was different from other PGRs by inducing green solid sectors on calli surfaces (Total 51 sectors/20 callus/Akhisar variety). Five plantlets have been grown from these solid cell clumps and transferred to specific media for root formation. As a result, five varieties (Suleyman Bey, Bornova 92, Vamyk Hoca, Kaya and Akhisar) tested in our study showed the potential to produce regenerable callus by using low amounts of dicamba or TDZ. The optimization process starts from culturing embryos to plantlet formation took nearly 4 weeks.