Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer

Gümüşoğlu Acar E., Günel T.

Springer Nature, Basel, 2022

  • Publication Type: Book / Research Book
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Publisher: Springer Nature
  • City: Basel
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most common and lethal gynecological malignancies among women. Even though new therapeutic advances are developing, the 5-year survival rate is still not changed. The 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed in stage I is up to 90% and the 5-year survival rate for stage II is up to 70%. Therefore, the early diagnosis has vital importance for treatment efficiency of ovarian cancer. Current diagnostic approaches mainly based on vaginal and pelvic examinations and imaging methods such as transvaginal ultrasonography. Furthermore, several biomarkers, which are diagnostic, prognostic, and potential, also support the diagnosis. The protein-based biomarkers, best known Cancer Antigen-125 (CA-125), are generally accepted biomarkers in blood tests for diagnosis. There are also biomarker-driven multivariate index assays such as Ova1, Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), and Overa. However, recently, gene, metabolite, epigenetics, and miRNA-based biomarkers have been studied. Another accelerating area of cancer biomarkers is liquid biopsy as a noninvasive approach because of the challenges in the detection of small nonmetastatic tumors in early stages. Detection of tumor particles in circulation (cells, cell-free nucleic acids, and exosomes) in body fluids in the early stages of cancer would enable preclinical diagnosis and improve survival rates. In this book chapter, ovarian cancer biomarkers and their roles were discussed for early prediction of disease, its status, stage, and therapy response.