These experiments were carried out to study, the effects of cold exposure on the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in hyperglycemic rats. The integrity of the BBB was investigated using Evans blue albumin (EBA) extravasation. Serum glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats were significantly higher than that obtained from normoglycemic rats (P < 0.05). Mean arterial blood pressure in hypothermic groups significantly dropped into lower levels, than that obtained in normothermic groups (P < 0.05). The EBA extravasation to the cerebellum in the group of cold exposure + acute hyperglycemia significantly increased compared with the values obtained from the cold exposure group (P < 0.05). The EBA extravasation to the brain regions of diabetic rats exposed to cold increased snore than that in normotermic control rats (P < 0.05), but did not exceed the levels in cold controls. The result of this study suggests that, acute hyperglycemia superimposed upon the permeability of BBB in the rat exposed to cold, only in selected regions of the brain, especially the cerebellum, and this result could be an important factor to explain the mechanisms of death related with hyperglycemia + cold exposure in forensic medicine. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.