Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The effect of a high cholesterol (HC) diet with and without HO on lipids and lipid peroxide levels in plasma, apolipoprotein B 100-containing lipoproteins (VLDL + LDL), and erythrocytes as well as hematological data was investigated in rabbits. A HC diet caused significant increases in lipid peroxide levels in plasma and apo B-containing lipoproteins together with histopathological atherosclerotic findings in aorta. In addition, this diet resulted in hemolytic anemia associated with increased endogenous diene conjugate (DC) levels, but H2O2-induced malondialdehyde (MIDA) levels remained unchanged in erythrocytes. HO supplementation reduced lipid peroxide levels in plasma and apolipoprotein B 100-containing lipoproteins as well as aortic atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits fed an HC diet without any decreasing effect on lipid levels. In addition, HO was found to reduce hemolytic anemia together with significant decreases in DC and H2O2-induced MDA levels.