Reference Values for Dimensions of Major Portal and Systemic Intra-abdominal Veins of Children on Computed Tomography

Bayramoglu Z., Ersoy B., Ayyildiz H., Cingoz E.

Indian Journal of Surgery, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12262-023-03935-5
  • Journal Name: Indian Journal of Surgery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Children, Diameter, Portal vein, Renal vein, Splenic vein, Vena cava inferior
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Awareness of the vein dimensions facilitates the detection of both solid organ and vein pathologies. We aimed to provide reference values major intra-abdominal portal and systemic vein diameters in several pediatric age groups and reveal associations of vein diamaters with each other, age, and waist circumference using data from contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Abdominal computed tomography images of 800 pediatric patients (468 men, 332 women) aged 0–2, 3–5, 6–10, 11–14, and 15–17 years having normal abdominal radiological findings were examined. The means with standard deviations and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the the major portal vein with right and left branches, superior mesenteric and splenic veins, right and left renal veins, and intrahepatic vena cava inferior diameters were calculated for all age groups. Differences in mean diameters were analyzed with the analysis of variance and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference tests between age groups and with the t-test between gender groups. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the associations of vein diameters with each other, age and waist circumference. There was no significant difference between gender groups in terms of age and vein diameters. Significant differences in mean diameters were identified in the consecutive age groups from group 1 to 4 (p = 0.001) for splanchnic venous system, renal veins, and vena cava inferior. Diameters were significantly greater in age group 5 compared to age group 4 (p = 0.049–0.001). Moderate positive correlations were found between diameters of the portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, and vena cava inferior with age and waist circumference (p = 0.001, r = 0.54–0.7). Moderate positive correlation was identified between age and estimated waist circumference (p = 0.001, r = 0.77). Age and waist circumference dependant regression equations and relative ratios for vein diamaters were depicted. We provide reference ranges as means and percentiles for the diameters of splanchnic venous system, renal veins, and vena cava inferior using computed tomography images of age stratified children. Vein diameters were correlated with each other, age, and waist circumference.