The effects of a fascial tissue interface on silicone implant capsule formation were studied in a rabbit model. In two experimental groups, the thoracodorsal fascia was harvested either as a free graft (Group Ia) or as a fascial. flap (Group Ib), then wrapped around silicone implants prior to subcutaneous placement. In each instance the fascia was configured to form a biological interface between the implant and surrounding soft tissue. The resulting capsules were macroscopically and histologically compared to a control group (Group II) of unwrapped silicone implants which were inserted subcutaneously. The cellular response to textured and smooth surfaces on opposing sides of each implant was also separately investigated in both study groups. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test.