In this study, we applied a second round of random mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate to further increase the lipid productivity of a Chlorella vulgaris mutant strain. We generated a mutant (UV715-EMS25) with a lipid content and biomass that were respectively 67% and 35% higher than those of the wild type (WT). The highest achieved lipid productivity in UV715-EMS25 was 91 mg L-1 day(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the fatty acid methyl ester content of the mutant was 3.9-fold higher compared with that of WT cells. Amounts of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were also higher in the mutant, while the total amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower. Finally, the mutant displayed superior lipid productivity compared with the WT during pilot-scale cultivation in a flat panel photobioreactor. All these results demonstrate that UV715-EMS25 is highly suitable for biodiesel production.