Genetic polymorphism is considered to be associated with human physical performance. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and the alpha-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) R577X polymorphisms have been widely investigated for such associations, and functional ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms have been associated with sprinter performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these polymorphisms on sport performance among 37 elite athletes and 37 healthy controls. The ACE II genotype was identified in 32.43% of the control group and 8.11% of elite athletes, the DD genotype in 37.84% of the control group and 51.35% of the elite athletes, and the ID genotype in 29.73% of the control group and 40.54% of the elite athletes. With regard to the ACTN3 gene, the XX genotype, which confers an advantage for endurance activities, was identified in 10.81% of the control group and 35.14% of the elite athletes. The XX genotype was observed more frequently than the RR genotype (advantageous for sprinting), which was identified in 2.70% of the control group and 10.81% of elite athletes. The RX genotype (observed in 86.48% of the control group and in 54.05% of the elite athletes) was the most common genotype of the individuals in the present study. The study showed that ACTN3 and ACE gene polymorphisms have an effect on muscle power; however, larger studies are required.