Phytochemical screening, biological evaluation, anatomical, and morphological investigation of <i>Ferula tingitana</i> L. (Apiaceae)


PROTOPLASMA, vol.260, no.6, pp.1581-1601, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 260 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00709-023-01874-2
  • Journal Name: PROTOPLASMA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1581-1601
  • Keywords: Anatomical, Anticholinesterase, Antidiabetic, Antioxidant, Ferula tingitana, Morphological
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Ferula tingitana L. is a high perennial plant and its leaf is an alternate arrangement and yellow, and its flowers are unisexual like other Apiaceae. It has been used as a spice and for various medicinal purposes in the Mediterranean region. The paper reports antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and genotoxic activities of leaves, flowers, stems, and fruits methanol extracts of F. tingitana. Also, quantitative determination of some secondary metabolites was also analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Moreover, chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed. Consequently, anatomical, and morphological properties of plant were investigated. Germacrene D (23.6%), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (18.4%), and alpha-pinene (50.0%) were found as the main compounds in flower, leaf, and stem oils, respectively. The cortex in stem, pedicel, and fruit is characterized by angular collenchyma cells and a distinct cambium layer. 6 compounds (quinic acid, fumaric acid, keracyanin chloride, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, hesperidin) were observed in samples. Leaf extract showed anticholinesterase activity. Leaf and flower extracts showed the highest % inhibition value on ABTS(center dot+) and DPPH center dot. Leaf extract has the strongest antioxidant effect because it is rich in total phenolic contents. All extracts of F. tingitana were found generally effective against C. albicans. Stem extract was found effective against E. coli and flower extract was found more effective against S. enterica and C. albicans. Bacterial genotoxicity results showed that extracts did not have genotoxic activity on tester strains S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA. Thus, it revealed that extracts were genotoxic-ally safe at applied concentrations up to 3 mg/plate.