The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels of gingival tissues in diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis and to reveal the effects of MCP-1 on periodontal inflammation and destruction in these diseases. DM was created in 15 rats (group 1) by streptozotocin injection, and periodontitis was obtained by ligature induction in 15 rats (group 2). Fifteen systemically and periodontally healthy rats were used as control (group 3). Gingival MCP-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Periodontal inflammation was quantified by the inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingival samples, whereas periodontal destruction was assessed by the alveolar bone loss in the experimental regions. MCP-1 concentrations were higher in groups I and 2 than in group 3 (p<0.001). Increased gingival inflammatory cell infiltration and alveolar bone loss were observed in groups I and 2 compared to group 3 (p<0.001). There were positive correlations among the MCP-1 level, gingival inflammatory cell infiltration, and alveolar bone loss in groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that (1) DM may lead to enhanced MCP-1 production in periodontal tissues likewise for periodontitis and (2) there may be a positive correlation between the MCP-1 concentration and diseased nature of periodontium in both diseases.