Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI), has excellent efficacy in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib resistance and intolerance opened the way to the development of second generation TKIs against CML, including nilotinib and dasatinib. Because all TKIs are more effective drugs in comparison with previous therapies in CML, the follow-up period is now longer in the TKI era. These compounds are prescribed for prolonged periods, often in patients with comorbidities. Therefore, monitoring of CML should comprise the response to TKIs and long term effects of the TKIs.