Introduction: Artificial liver support systems represent a potential useful option for the treatment of liver failure. The outcomes of patients treated with the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) system are presented. Patients and methods: FPSA was performed 85 times for 27 patients (median 3 treatments/patient) with liver failure [85.2% acute liver failure (ALF) and 14.8% acute-on-chronic liver failure] using the Prometheus 4008H (Fresenius Medical Care) unit. Citrate was used for anticoagulation. A variety of clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. Comparisons between pretreatment and post-treatment data were performed using paired t-test. Results: The 85 sessions had a mean duration of 6 h. There were significant decreases in total bilirubin (13.18 +/- 9.46 mg/dL vs. 9.76 +/- 7.05 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), ammonia (167.6 +/- 75 mg/dL vs. 120 +/- 43.8 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 12.55 +/- 13.03 mg/dL vs. 8.18 +/- 8.15 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), creatinine (0.54 +/- 0.47 mg/dL vs. 0.46 +/- 0.37 mg/dL; P = 0.0022) levels. and in pH (7.48 +/- 0.05 vs. 7.44 +/- 0.08; P = 0.0045). Four patients (14.8%) received liver transplantation after the treatments; in nine patients, transplantation was not necessary anymore (33%); the remaining 14 patients did not receive a transplantation because they were either not appropriate candidates or no organ was available. Overall survival was 48.1% (4 transplanted and 9 treated patients). No hematological complications related to FPSA were observed. Conclusions: FPSA system is a safe and effective detoxification method for patients with liver dysfunction, including ALF. The system is useful as a symptomatic treatment before liver transplantation; in up to 1/3 of the cases, it can even be used as a sole method of treatment. J. Clin. Apheresis 25:195-201, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.