Stem cells can be used in different areas of obstetrics and gynecology. Adult stem cells are specialized cells found within many tissues of the body where they function in tissue homeostasis and repair. In vitro they have been shown to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been used to set up therapeutic strategies for the treatment of gynecological solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. Stem cells can be used for prenatal transplantation and in utero gene therapy. Also stem cells can be used in infertility and IVF for research and treatment. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.