The aim of this study was to determine the levels of regulatory peptides apelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and visfatin in hypercholesterolemic and hyperhomocysteinemic state and to examine their relation with nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. 32 Male guinea pigs were divided into four groups and each group was fed as follows: (a) commercial chow, (b) cholesterol (chol)-rich diet, (c) methionine (meth)-rich diet, and (d) chol + meth-rich diet. Blood samples were drawn at the end of 10 weeks, and abdominal aorta was dissected for histopathological examination. Serum insulin, GLP-1, apelin, visfatin, and nitrotyrosine concentrations were measured by the manufacturer's kits based on ELISA; asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginine levels were measured by the high performance liquid chromatography. Homocysteine level was measured by the chemiluminescence immunoassay; glucose, total chol and triglyceride levels were measured by the autoanalyzer. The microscopic examination of aorta indicated varying degrees of vascular disturbance in chol- and chol + meth-fed groups. High levels of chol and homocysteine, accompanied with significantly low levels of apelin and GLP-1 were detected in the plasma. Visfatin, ADMA, and nitrotyrosine levels both in chol- and chol + meth-fed groups were significantly higher than those in control animals, whereas arginine and arginine/ADMA ratio were lower. This study indicated that circulating levels of apelin, GLP-1, and visfatin are markedly altered during the development of atherosclerotic changes in close association with chol, homocysteine, NO, and ADMA levels. The measurements of these peptides in serum may help for the diagnosis and follow-up of vascular dysfunction.