The extracts obtained from aerial parts of four annual Papaver (Papaveraceae) species from sections Argemonidium (P. argemone L. subsp. davisii Kadereit) and Rhoeadium (P. clavatum Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Boiss., R dubium L. subsp. lecoqii var. lecoqii (Lamotte) Syme Kadereit and P rhoeas L.) have been investigated for antimicrobial activity using a microbroth dilution technique. The antimicrobial activity of these species is reported for the first time. The petroleum ether and diethyl ether extracts of R dubium subsp. lecoqii showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 9.76 and 19.52 mu g/mL, respectively). The diethyl ether and chloroform extracts of P. argemone subsp. davisii and diethyl ether, chloroform and acetone extracts of P. rhoeas had activity against S. aureus with a MIC value of 39.06 mu g/mL.