Genetic panel screening in patients with clinically unclassified systemic autoinflammatory diseases.


Demir F., Doğan Ö., Demirkol Y., Tekkuş K., Canbek S., Karadağ Ş., ...More

Clinical rheumatology, vol.39, pp.3733-3745, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10067-020-05108-1
  • Title of Journal : Clinical rheumatology
  • Page Numbers: pp.3733-3745
  • Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, Periodic fever syndromes, Systemic autoinflammatory diseases, Unclassified, Undefined, FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER, PERIODIC FEVER, GUIDELINES, DIAGNOSIS, GENOMICS, CRITERIA, REGISTRY, VARIANT

Abstract

Objective Systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs) may not always present with typical clinical findings of a monogenic disease. We aimed to genetically screen and diagnose these clinically unclassified patients by next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Method A total of 64 patients who had clinical findings of a periodic fever syndrome but did not meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for any SAID or had clinical findings for more than one monogenic SAID were identified as "clinically unclassified SAIDs." NGS panel analysis, including 16 genes, was performed in these patients. Patients, who could not be classified as one of the defined SAID after the result of the NGS gene analysis, were identified as "undefined SAID." Results The most common autoinflammatory symptoms in unclassified SAID patients were abdominal pain (60.9%), arthralgia (48.4%), urticarial rash (43.8%), myalgia (40.6%), oral aphthae (28.1%), and conjunctivitis (20.3%), respectively. In the result of the NGS gene panel screening, pathogenic, likely pathogenic variants, or VUS (variants of uncertain significance) were detected in 36 of 64 patients in at least one gene in the NGS panel. A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with a monogenic SAID according to both phenotypic and genotypic data; 12 patients as FMF, two patients as FCAS, and one patient as TRAPS, respectively. A total of 49 patients who did not meet the classification criteria including genetic results for a monogenic SAID were followed as undefined SAID. Conclusions The classification criteria described for SAIDs so far unfortunately do not cover all patients with signs of periodic fevers. The NGS gene panel appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for some of the patients with clinically unclassified SAID findings.