Acanthobrama thisbeae, new species, is described from the lower Ceyhan and Orontes Rivers in Turkey. It is distinguished from other species of the genus by having 73-86+3-4 scales along the lateral line, a thin and short last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, flank scales with a crenulated posterior margin, and 14-161/2 branched anal-fin rays. Acanthobrama orontis is a valid species distributed in the Orontes, Ceyhan and Seyhan rivers. Eleven species are recognised as valid in the genus Acanthobrama (A. centisquama, A. hadiyahensis, A. lissneri, A. marmid, A. microlepis, A. orontis, A. persidis, A. telavivensis, A. thisbae, A. tricolor, A. urmianus). Acanthalburnus is treated as a synonym of Acanthobrama.