Research concerning the epigenome over the years has systematically and sequentially shown substantial development and we have moved from global inhibition of modifications of the epigenome toward identification and targeted therapy against tumor-specific epigenetic mechanisms. In accordance with this approach, several drugs with epigenetically modulating activity have received considerable attention and appreciation, and recently emerging scientific evidence is uncovering details of their mode of action. High-throughput technologies have considerably improved our existing understanding of tumor suppressors, oncogenes, and signaling pathways that are key drivers of cancer. In this review, we summarize the general epigenetic mechanisms in cancer, including: the post-translational modification of DNA methyltransferase and its mediated inactivation of Ras association domain family 1 isoform A, Sonic hedgehog signaling, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, transforming growth factor signaling, and natural products with epigenetic modification ability. Moreover, we introduce the importance of nano-medicine for delivery of natural products with modulating ability to epigenetic machinery in cancer cells. Such in-depth and comprehensive knowledge regarding epigenetic dysregulation will be helpful in the upcoming era of molecular genomic pathology for both detection and treatment of cancer. Epigenetic information will also be helpful when nanotherapy is used for epigenetic modification.