A 54-year-old male patient was admitted to our department with fever, dyspnea and chest pain, Left pleural effusion and destroyed left lower lobe was noticed in his computerized chest tomography. After chest tube drainage, massive hemoptysis developed. An emergency thoracotomy was performed. A bronchopleural fistula, destroyed left lower lobe and the head of an oat were detected in the pleural space, Left lower lobectomy and perioperative pneumoperitoneum were performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative (p.o.) course and was discharged on p.o. day 6. We present this case because of the rarity and to emphasize the clinical presentation. The physicians should be aware of life threatening complications of oat head aspiration. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.