Background: The aim of intraperitoneal administration of antineoplastic agents is the prevention of the implantation of tumoral cells after surgical intervention or the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The efficiency of intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel, which is also an antiangiogenetic agent, has been investigated recently. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate, taking into consideration its antiangiogenetic properties, the effects of intraperitoneal paclitaxel on healing of end to end colonic anastomosis. Methods: 42 rats were allocated to 2 main groups (n=21 for each group) to be evaluated on postperative day 3 (group A) and postoperative day 7 (group B). Each of the two main groups was divided into 3 subgroups (7 rats each). These subgroups were determined as control and two treatment groups administered paclitaxel in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg and 3.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Anastomosed segments of colon were harvested on postoperative day 3 or 7 and evaluated to determine bursting pressure of anastomoses, hydroxyproline levels and neovascularization with CD-31. Results: In both groups, there were no significant differences between control and paclitaxel-treated groups with respect to bursting pressure. The level of hydroxyproline showed a significant decrease in all paclitaxel-treated groups compared with control groups (p=0.001). Neovascularization was found to be decreased significantly on day 3 in the doses of paclitaxel 2.5 mg/kg (6.4±1.63) and 3.5 mg/kg (5.89±1.01) compared with control (8.02±0.88) (p=0.029 and p=0.005, respectively). There were no significant differences in neovascularization in either groups on postoperative day 7. Conclusions: We suggest that intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel during surgical procedure decreases the hydroxyproline content and neovessel formation that are necessary for healing of intestinal anastomosis.