Autoimmunity and inflammation can be shown as causative factors of epilepsies of unknown cause. The clear relationship between seizures and certain autoimmune diseases has been revealed in recent years. The detection of autoantibodies in the serum of patients with epilepsy supports this notion. Most of the epilepsy-associated antibodies occur against molecules on the surface of neurons, whereas the remaining autoantibodies target intracellular antigens. In this article, we summarize anti-neuronal autoantibodies associated with epilepsy and associated neurological syndromes.