Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms are usually associated with plasma triglyceride levels. We evaluated the relationship of the APOA5 -1131T>C and c.56C>G polymorphisms [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] with serum lipids, dyslipidemia [low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/high triglyceride] and the risk for metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Turkish Adult Risk Factor study.
We genotyped SNPs using the Taqman allelic discrimination assays in 1564 Turkish adults (51.4% female, mean age 54.1+/-11.6 years). MS and dyslipidemia were defined using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program.
For both SNPs, rare allele carriers had significantly higher fasting triglyceride levels in both genders, except the c.56G allele in men. The -1131C allele was associated with lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in women. In relation to dyslipidemia, the c.56C>G and haplotype 1 had significant gender-genotype interactions (p<0.05). Otherwise, both SNPs were significantly associated with dyslipidemia after adjustment for risk factors in women. After similar adjustment, non-carriers of the haplotype 1 (odds ratio=4.1, p=0.003) increased the MS risk in women. However, no significant associations emerged between SNPs and HDL-C, dyslipidemia or MS in a similar analysis in men.
Excess risk for low HDL-C, dyslipidemia and MS is associated with the rare alleles of the APOA5 SNPs and non-carriers of common haplotype in women.