The Republic of Turkey has a long history of forest management that has undergone considerable change over the last 100 years due to political, economic, and social issues. For the most part, state-owned forestlands (the largest forest owner category) have been managed under plans arising from a conventional process that used classic techniques to regulate activities and allowable harvest levels. However, over the last 35 years, four different types of forest management plans have been developed (conventional and model) and applied universally or to a specific region of the country. Today, a single type of planning process is used, which emphasizes ecological and environmental conditions, multiple uses of the landscape, and social concerns. Although management and planning are evolving, implementation is challenged by a continued focus on wood production rather than on other concerns, a lack of skilled personnel and qualified decisionmakers, and other societal conflicts.