Classification of Lactate Level Using Resting-State EEG Measurements

Shaban S. A. , Ucan O. N. , DURU A. D.

APPLIED BIONICS AND BIOMECHANICS, vol.2021, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2021
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1155/2021/6662074


The electroencephalography (EEG) signals have been used widely for studying the brain neural information dynamics and behaviors along with the developing impact of using the machine and deep learning techniques. This work proposes a system based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) as a feature extraction method for the classification of human brain resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recorded signals. In the proposed system, the FFT method is applied on the resting-state EEG recordings and the corresponding band powers were calculated. The extracted relative power features are supplied to the classification methods (classifiers) as an input for the classification purpose as a measure of human tiredness through predicting lactate enzyme level, high or low. To validate the suggested method, we used an EEG dataset which has been recorded from a group of elite-level athletes consisting of two classes: not tired, the EEG signals were recorded during the resting-state task before performing acute exercise and tired, the EEG signals were recorded in the resting-state after performing an acute exercise. The performance of three different classifiers was evaluated with two performance measures, accuracy and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98% by the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier. The findings of this study indicated that the feature extraction scheme has the ability to classify the analyzed EEG signals accurately and predict the level of lactate enzyme high or low. Many studying fields, like the Internet of Things (IoT) and the brain computer interface (BCI), can utilize the findings of the proposed system in many crucial decision-making applications.