Osmotic and ionic balance in the central nervous system is especially regulated by solutes and water transport across the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of systemic hyperosmolarity on the blood-brain barrier permeability in both sexes after experimentally induced seizures. Eight groups of rats were studied: Group I: female control; Group II: male control; Group III: hyperosmotic female; Group IV: hyperosmotic male; Group V: non-hyperosmotic female + seizure; Group VI: non-hyperosmotic male + seizure; Group VII: hyperosmotic female + seizure; Group VIII: hyperosmotic male + seizure. In female rats with pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, the extravasation of Evans-blue was greater in the brains of hyperosmotic animals than that in normal rats (P < 0.02). However, in male rats, the extravasation of Evans-blue was similar in the brains of hyperosmotic male rats and normal rats after seizure.