Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a human disease with high fatality rate. Although its pathogenesis is not elucidated yet, it is considered that cytokines play a significant role in the progression and outcome of the disease. Serum CXCL10 levels were estimated in 35 patients with acute CCHF and were correlated with the viral load, and various demographic and clinical parameters. The mean CXCL10 concentration in the patients' group was higher compared to the respective value in the control group (4421.74pg/ml vs. 28.47pg/ml, P<0.05). A strong positive correlation between CXCL10 and viral load was seen (r(s)=0.57, P<0.001), while the outcome of the disease was related with the viral load (r(s)=0.47, P=0.004) and the presence of hemorrhagic manifestations (P<0.001). The study provides an insight into the strong correlation between CXCL10 and viral load in acute CCHF cases suggesting that it plays an important role in CCHF pathogenesis. J. Med. Virol. 87:899-903, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.