Validity and Reliability of the Instruments to Measure Colorectal Cancer Screening Benefits and Barriers-Turkish Version

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Donmez E., Nahcivan N. O. , Rawl S. M.

CANCER NURSING, vol.45, no.2, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 45 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/ncc.0000000000000921
  • Journal Name: CANCER NURSING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, DIALNET
  • Keywords: Barriers, Benefits, Colorectal cancer, Emoji-based scale, Reliability, Screening, Validity, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL, STAGE, SCALE, INTERVENTIONS, PREDICTORS, ADOPTION, BREAST, SIGMOIDOSCOPY, VALIDATION, GUIDELINES
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Background Perceptions of benefits and barriers are important determinants in understanding colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) behaviors. There is a need for standardized Turkish tools that measure the benefits and barriers of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and colonoscopy (COL). Objective The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the "Instruments to Measure CRCS Benefits and Barriers." Methods This methodological study was carried out in 2 stages in primary care and in 394 adults between the ages of 50 and 70 years. In the first stage, some items of the scales demonstrated low/unacceptable corrected item-total and factor loadings, and in the second stage, it was decided to add emoji-based facial scales, which include emoji expressions. Results Results with the emoji-based facial scales included internal consistency coefficients of 0.85 for FOBT benefits, 0.79 for FOBT barriers, 0.84 for COL benefits, and 0.86 for COL barriers; the item-total correlations of FOBT varied between 0.39 and 0.73, whereas those of COL varied between 0.38 and 0.76. The factor loadings of all items were higher than 0.40. Conclusions The emoji-based facial scale for CRC Screening Benefits and Barriers is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the benefits and barriers perceptions of 50- to 70-year-old Turkish adults. Implications for Practice The Instruments to Measure CRCS Benefits and Barriers-Turkish version can provide insights for nurses and healthcare professionals to understand individuals' perceived FOBT and COL benefits and barriers and to develop effective interventions to increase CRCS rates.