THE FIRST EXAMPLE OF MUGHAM(MAKAM)-ORATORIO GENRE – THE ANALYSIS OF THE ORATORIO OF “SU KASIDESI”


Aydınoğlu T.

1. ULUSLARARASI HAZAR BİLİMSEL ARAŞTIRMA KONGRESİ, Baku, Azerbaijan, 18 - 20 September 2020, vol.1, no.1, pp.784-794

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 1
  • City: Baku
  • Country: Azerbaijan
  • Page Numbers: pp.784-794

Abstract

Azerbaijani composers, in whose compositions we often perceive West-East synthesis, thought that the most convenient way of introducing makams of Azerbaijani folk-music was to combine these makams with the Western music. The pioneer of this trend, the founder of the Azerbaijani school of composition, and the composer of the first makam opera of the East was Üzeyir Hacıbeyli. The composer wrote the opera of ''Leyla and Mecnun'' (Libretto: Ceyhun Hacıbeyli) based on the poem with the same name written by the great poet Fuzuli. Features like reading of the recitatives with makam and enriching solo themes by the makam improvisations made this work distinguished in opera literature. Fikret Amirov, who took inspiration from Üzeyir Hacıbeyli and remained loyal to his roots and musical culture, pioneered the emergence of a new musical genre: he created the genre of symphonic makam, which is another East-West synthesis. The composer wrote the symphonic makams of "Şur" and "Kürd Ovşarı" in 1948. 

In the following years, this trend, passing to the other spheres from classical music, introduced new genres like jazz makam (Vagif Mustafazadeh). Again another Azerbaijani composer added makam oratorio, a new genre in this trend, to world music history. Pike Akhundova, one of the students of Arif Melikov, who is one of the most brilliant representatives of 21st-century Azerbaijani school of composition, created "Su Kasidesi" by the order of the Department of Culture of İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The premiere of this work took place on 19 March 2019 in Cemal Reşit Rey Concert Hall in İstanbul. This work, like the opera of "Leyla and Mecnun," was composed too based on a poem by Fuzuli. The great poet dedicated "Su Kasidesi" to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). The makam oratorio of "Su Kasidesi" is composed of 9 parts. Each part is written based on different makams. One of the remarkable features of this work is that besides Western musical instruments, it includes Azerbaijani and Turkish folk music instruments. In the composition from Azerbaijani folk music instruments, tar, kamancheh, and balaban; from Turkish folk music instruments ney, tambur, kemenche, and qanun are used harmoniously musical instruments of classical Western music. 

Key words: Mugham, Oratorio, West-East synthesis, symphonic music