Introduction: Neurodegeneration is a process that is characterized by the loss of neuronal structure and function and eventually ends with neuronal death. An elevated level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is suggested to accompany this process by inducing oxidative and nitrosative damage. Vitamin D is reported to protect glial cells against neurotoxicity via suppressing iNOS synthesis. Though there was no data about whether iNOS is regulated by vitamin D in hippocampal neurons. In this study our aim was to determine any alteration in iNOS expression of hippocampal neurons in response to vitamin D treatment.