The taxa of the genus Euphorbia L. have seeds that mature in schizocarp fruits, called cocci, with three or more cells, each of which explosively splits open into separate parts at maturity. The Euphorbia seeds have taxonomically useful characters. We studied 13 taxa of the genus Euphorbia distributed in Turkey-in-Europe, with a focus on the seed characters; for morphological observations we used a stereomicroscope, and for surface microstructure we used a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphological observations showed that the seed characters of shape, size, color, surface features, and the features of the caruncle are uniquely different. SEM observations showed that the seed surface microstructures are also uniquely different, and detected globules that burst out of the surface between the cells. The function of lipid-rich globules is discussed.