Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is currently diagnosed based on an arbitrarily predefined standard deviation of neuropsychological test scores, and more objective biomarkers for PD-MCI diagnosis are needed. The purpose of this study was to define possible brain perfusion-based biomarkers of not only mild cognitive impairment, but also risky gene carriers in PD using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI). Fifteen healthy controls (HC), 26 cognitively normal PD (PD-CN), and 27 PD-MCI subjects participated in this study. ASL-MRI data were acquired by signal targeting with alternating radio-frequency labeling with Look-Locker sequence at 3 T. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping for rs9468 [microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) H1/H1 versus H1/H2 haplotype] was performed using a Stratagene Mx3005p real-time polymerase chain-reaction system (Agilent Technologies, USA). There were 15 subjects withMAPTH1/H1 and 11 subjects withMAPTH1/H2 within PD-MCI, and 33 subjects withMAPTH1/H1 and 19 subjects withMAPTH1/H2 within all PD. Voxel-wise differences of cerebral blood flow (CBF) values between HC, PD-CN and PD-MCI were assessed by one-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise post hoc comparisons. Further, the subgroup of PD patients carrying the riskyMAPTH1/H1 haplotype was compared with noncarriers (MAPTH1/H2 haplotype) in terms of CBF by a two-samplettest. A pattern that could be summarized as "posterior hypoperfusion" (PH) differentiated the PD-MCI group from the HC group with an accuracy of 92.6% (sensitivity = 93%, specificity = 93%). Additionally, the PD patients withMAPTH1/H1 haplotype had decreased perfusion than the ones with H1/H2 haplotype at the posterior areas of the visual network (VN), default mode network (DMN), and dorsal attention network (DAN). The PH-type pattern in ASL-MRI could be employed as a biomarker of both current cognitive impairment and future cognitive decline in PD.