The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV) infections and risk factors in the Turkish general population. Participants were enrolled from urban and rural areas of the predetermined 23 EUROSTAT NUTS 2 region. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select participants from these regions (n = 5460; 50.9% females; mean (SD) age: 40.8 (14.7) years). Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and risk factors were recorded at home visits. The seropositivity rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-HBs and anti-HBc total were 4.0%, 1.0%, 31.9% and 30.6%, respectively. Among HBsAg-positive cases, 94.5% were anti-HBe-positive, 70.2% were HBV-DNA-positive and 2.8% were anti-HDV total positive; 99.1% of HBV infections were of genotype D. Close contact with a hepatitis patient (OR 3.24; 95% CI 2.25-4.66; p < 0.001), living in the southeastern region (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.7-4.45; p < 0.001), male gender (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.28-2.46; p < 0.001), being married (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.02-2.57; p 0.038), educational level less than high school (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.04-2.26; p 0.03), orodental interventions (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.01-2.35; p 0.047) and a history of non-disposable syringe use (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.01-1.96; p 0.045) were significant determinants of HBsAg positivity. Age >= 50 years (OR 2; 95% CI 1.09-4.3; p 0.026) was the only significant predictor of anti-HCV positivity. In conclusion, our findings revealed an HBsAg positivity in 4% and anti-HCV positivity in 1% of the adult population and at least one-third of the population has been exposed to HBV infection in Turkey. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (C) 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.