Urticaria exacerbations and adverse reactions in patients with chronic urticaria receiving COVID-19 vaccination: Results of the UCARE COVAC-CU study


Kocatürk E., Salameh P., Sarac E., Vera Ayala C. E., Thomsen S. F., Zuberbier T., ...More

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.152, no.5, pp.1095-1106, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 152 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jaci.2023.07.019
  • Journal Name: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1095-1106
  • Keywords: Adverse effects, COVID-19, exacerbation, omalizumab, real life, treatment, urticaria, vaccination, vaccine, worsening
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Background: Concern about disease exacerbations and fear of reactions after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations are common in chronic urticaria (CU) patients and may lead to vaccine hesitancy. Objective: We assessed the frequency and risk factors of CU exacerbation and adverse reactions in CU patients after COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: COVAC-CU is an international multicenter study of Urticaria Centers of Reference and Excellence (UCAREs) that retrospectively evaluated the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in CU patients aged ≥18 years and vaccinated with ≥1 dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. We evaluated CU exacerbations and severe allergic reactions as well as other adverse events associated with COVID-19 vaccinations and their association with various CU parameters. Results: Across 2769 COVID-19–vaccinated CU patients, most (90%) received at least 2 COVID-19 vaccine doses, and most patients received CU treatment and had well-controlled disease. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination–induced CU exacerbation was 9%. Of 223 patients with CU exacerbation after the first dose, 53.4% experienced recurrence of CU exacerbation after the second dose. CU exacerbation most often started <48 hours after vaccination (59.2%), lasted for a few weeks or less (70%), and was treated mainly with antihistamines (70.3%). Factors that increased the risk for COVID-19 vaccination–induced CU exacerbation included female sex, disease duration shorter than 24 months, having chronic spontaneous versus inducible urticaria, receipt of adenovirus viral vector vaccine, having nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug/aspirin intolerance, and having concerns about getting vaccinated; receiving omalizumab treatment and Latino/Hispanic ethnicity lowered the risk. First-dose vaccine–related adverse effects, most commonly local reactions, fever, fatigue, and muscle pain, were reported by 43.5% of CU patients. Seven patients reported severe allergic reactions. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccination leads to disease exacerbation in only a small number of CU patients and is generally well tolerated.