Management of humoral secondary immunodeficiency in hematological malignancies and following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Regional perspectives

AR M. C., El Fakih R., Gabbassova S., Alhuraiji A., Nasr F., Alsaeed A., ...More

Leukemia Research, vol.133, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 133
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.leukres.2023.107365
  • Journal Name: Leukemia Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hematological malignancies, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Humoral immunodeficiency, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Immunoglobulin replacement therapy, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma, Secondary immunodeficiency
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Secondary immunodeficiency (SID) can occur as a result of multiple factors, including hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), immunosuppressive treatment, biologics, and anti-inflammatory drugs. SID includes disorders resulting from impairment of both cellular and humoral immunity. This review focuses on the current risk factors, implications, and challenges in managing SID patients with impaired humoral immunity, which includes quantitative (hypogammaglobulinemia) and/or functional antibody and B-cell deficiencies specifically related to hematological malignancies and post-HSCT. Increased physician awareness is needed surrounding the disease presentation and early risk factors, as SID may be caused by several etiologies. Careful clinical assessment is then required to optimize management, which encompasses close monitoring of clinical parameters, vaccination, antibiotic prophylaxis, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT). Novel methods of IGRT administration are associated with enhanced pharmacokinetics, IgG trough level stability, no need for venous access, as well as fewer systemic adverse events and better administration flexibility compared with traditional methods. Published international guidelines supported by observations from clinical data are broadly followed; however, best practices within each country have nuances that underline the need to tailor treatment plans to the individual patient.