NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, vol.37, no.3, pp.141-147, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate primary headache disorders and other causative comorbidities (e.g., epilepsy, atopic disorders, recurrent abdominal pain, motion sickness, and headache) in children with tic disorders (TDs) and their mothers. Materials and Methods: In a multi-center, cross-sectional, familial association study using case-control design, youth (between 7 and 17 years) with TDs (TD, as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls and their mothers were evaluated in the aspect of functional syndromes spectrum including migraine, epilepsy, atopic disorders, motion sickness, and recurrent abdominal pain. Results: Seventy-nine youth with TD and 101 controls were included. Causative comorbidities, other than epilepsy and motion sickness were more common in children with TD with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1 (atopy) and 3.9 (food allergy). Specifically, recurrent abdominal pain and migraine were found in 36.7% and 31.7% of children (vs. 18.8% and 16.8% of controls, ORs 2.5 and 2.3, respectively). Mothers of youth with TDs also have higher rates of atopy, drug allergy and allergic dermatitis (ORs; 3.8, 3.2 and 2.1; respectively). Conclusion: Results of recent studies suggest a possible link between atopic disorders, migraine, recurrent abdominal pain and TDs. Our results contribute to those studies and suggest that this relationship may extend to the mothers of children as well.