Serum lipids were determined in 10 untreated patients with recently diagnosed epilepsy, 21 patients treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), 10 patients treated with valproate (VPA) and in 15 healthy children. In relation to the controls, patients receiving CBZ showed increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein A (Ape-A) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B). Patients receiving VPA showed increased Apo-B levels. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) or very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) between all groups. The changes in lipid metabolism may be associated with the induction of liver enzymes during anti-epileptic drug metabolism. The CBZ-induced change in serum lipid levels was considered to be a possible factor against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in epileptic patients.