Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a clinical condition in which maternal and paternal Rh blood group antigens are incompatible and the mother is negative for the antigen whereas the father is positive. Analysis of fetal cells recovered from maternal plasma can provide a highly sensitive prenatal diagnosis. The fetal RHD gene in plasma DNA is detected by real-time PCR amplification of two different segments of the RHD gene (exons 7 and 10). Each amplicon is revealed with specific probes. We examined 40 female blood samples to verify the specificity of RHD exons (7 and 10) amplified by real-time PCR. Thirty fetuses were predicted to be RHD-positive based on analysis of plasma DNA. Seven fetuses were predicted to be RHD-negative. One fetus was negative for RHD on exon 10, and positive for RHD on exon 7 (early gestation age); two fetuses were RHD-negative on exon 7, and RHD- positive on exon 10 (RHD-CE-D-s or RHD Psi), indicative of a maternal RHD allele. We conclude that it is necessary to analyze at least two exon regions in the RHD gene.