In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Plastoquinone Analogues against Colorectal and Breast Cancers along with In Silico Insights

Creative Commons License

Ciftci H., Sever B., Bayrak N., Tateishi H., Otsuka M., Fujita M., ...More

PHARMACEUTICALS, vol.15, no.10, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ph15101266
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: colorectal cancer, breast cancer, plastoquinone, NCI-60, growth inhibition, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA binding, pharmacokinetic determinants, DRUG DISCOVERY, RISK, ASSOCIATION, CISPLATIN, APOPTOSIS, INSTITUTE, DESIGN
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer are leading causes of death globally, due to significant challenges in detection and management. The late-stage diagnosis and treatment failures require the discovery of potential anticancer agents to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic effect. We have previously reported a series of plastoquinone analogues to understand their cytotoxic profile. Among these derivatives, three of them (AQ-11, AQ-12, and AQ-15) were selected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to evaluate their in vitro antiproliferative activity against a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. AQ-12 exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against HCT-116 CRC and MCF-7 breast cancer cells at a single dose and further five doses. MTT assay was also performed for AQ-12 at different concentrations against these two cells, implying that AQ-12 exerted notable cytotoxicity toward HCT-116 (IC50 = 5.11 +/- 2.14 mu M) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 6.06 +/- 3.09 mu M) cells in comparison with cisplatin (IC50 = 23.68 +/- 6.81 mu M and 19.67 +/- 5.94 mu M, respectively). This compound also augmented apoptosis in HCT-116 (62.30%) and MCF-7 (64.60%) cells comparable to cisplatin (67.30% and 78.80%, respectively). Molecular docking studies showed that AQ-12 bound to DNA, forming hydrogen bonding through the quinone scaffold. In silico pharmacokinetic determinants indicated that AQ-12 demonstrated drug-likeness with a remarkable pharmacokinetic profile for future mechanistic anti-CRC and anti-breast cancer activity studies.