This study investigated the relation between erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress and antioxidant state in primary hyperthyroidism induced experimental rats. Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley-type female rats weighing between 160 and 200 g were divided into two, as control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 12), groups. The experimental group animals have received tap water and L-Tiroksin (0.4 mg/100 g fodder) added standard fodder for 30 days to induce hyperthyroidism. Control group animals were fed tap water and standard fodder for the same period. Blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta of the rats under ether anesthesia. T-3, T-4, and TSH levels, osmotic fragility, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, and glutathione levels were measured in the blood. There was a statistically significant deviation found in maximum and minimum osmotic hemolysis limit values of experimental group when compared to controls. The standard hemolytic increment curve of the hyperthyroid group shifted to the right when compared to control group's curve. There was a statistically significant increase found in MDA and superoxide dismutase, but statistically a significant decrease was detected in glutathione levels in hyperthyroid group when compared to controls. As a result of our study, it may be concluded that hyperthyroidism may led to an increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes and this situation may possibly originate from the increased lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroidism.