Palgrave Macmillan, London , New York, 2015
The so-called Arab Spring process which led to dramatic changes in some Middle Eastern countries also affected Syria. The people rose up in demand of further democratic rights and recognition of their fundamental rights. However, the uprising soon turned into a violent confrontation between the Assad regime and the peaceful protestors. The government, failing to respond to the popular demands, relied on brutal measures whereas the opposition groups also formed organized armed units. The situation was then transformed into an internal armed conflict which can also be characterized as a civil war.