Aims: Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) plays an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress and toxic chemicals. Polymorphisms within GSTP1 are associated with alterations in enzyme activity, which may lead to development of lung disease and cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the GSTP1 Ile105Val and Ala114Val polymorphisms in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients/Methods: GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism in exon 5 and GSTP1 Ala114Val polymorphism in exon 6 were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques in 89 patients with SCLC and 108 control patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking intensities were compared among SCLC and COPD patients. Results: There were significantly less SCLC patients with variant exon 6 genotypes than COPD patients (7.9% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.007), while the number of patients with variant exon 5 genotypes were comparable among groups. SCLC and COPD patients with variant exon 6 genotype showed trends toward exhibiting reduced cigarette consumption. Conclusions: The variant GSTP1 exon 6 genotype might be conferring protection against SCLC development. Whether this effect is associated with exposure to cigarette smoking needs to be clarified.