This study was designed to investigate, in the Turkish population, the association of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Our study included 249 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (102 men, 147 women) and 214 healthy volunteers as controls (91 men, 123 women). MTHFR C677T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. No differences were observed in the distribution of MTHFR genotypes or allele frequencies in the cases versus the controls. The frequency of the MTHFR-mutated allele (T) was 31.7% in the type II diabetes mellitus versus 31.1% of the controls. The homozygous mutation (T/T) in the MTHFR gene was identified in 12% of the type II diabetes mellitus versus 9.3% of the controls. Patients with the TT genotype showed a higher prevalence of LVH when compared to patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p = 0.01). The MTHFR gene C677T mutation may be a possible risk factor for the development of LVH in the type II diabetic patients.